“In an ideal world, the future parents should be properly educated
and they should have full information with regarding the process of
conception, gestation, stimulation, nutrition, etc. before starting the
natural process of gestation and pregnancy”
Chapter 4 - GETTING READY TO BE PARENTS (PRECONCEPTION)
Someone said that "the education of children begins ten years before their birth, with
the education of their parents" (unknown) and this is absolutely true. In order to
conceive, to give birth and to create smart babies, expectant parents should be
prepared not only in their best physical and emotional health, but also in their
education that should be sufficient to play fully their new role as parents in the best
possible way. It is certain that parents who have the best information, education and
parenting skills acquired before conception will have greater opportunities to breed
and raise healthy babies more intelligent. And we say that because we consider that
the parents should be properly educated, and they should have full information with
regarding the process of conception, gestation, stimulation, nutrition, etc. It is the
main goal of this ebook to help you to be prepared for a pregnancy of a baby that
you are expecting.
4.1 PREPARATION OF THE MOM
Planning ahead the situation of pregnancy and taking care of herself before
conception, is the best thing a woman can do for herself and her unborn baby. The
mother should be in optimal health of both psychological and physical conditions
before getting pregnant. At first, before conception, the mom and dad should do their homework in the best way possible, in order to prepare of your ideal sperm and
Before pregnancy, expectant mother should consult a physician in case you have any
major health problems such as epilepsy, diabetes, high blood pressure, anemia,
allergies, arthritis, lupus, cancer, deep vein thrombosis, epilepsy, heart disease,
hepatitis, herpes, hypo- or hyper-thyroidism, kidney disease or urinary tract
infections. If necessary, it is better to have medical treatment before or after
In fact, studies on the effect of prenatal stimulation on babies post birth only began
in 1986 with Rene Van de Carr where significant differences were reported in earl
speech, growth, bonding and success of breastfeeding in babies who experienced
prenatal stimulation as compared to babies who had not. In 1988 a similar study
conducted by obstetricians found that higher Apgar scores were associated with
babies who had experienced prenatal stimulation. Furthermore, the mothers also
reported an “easier than expected” birth in cases where prenatal stimulation was
involved. The latest version of this program – “While You’re Expecting: Create Your
Own Prenatal Classroom” has been available since 1997.
One of the most important steps in the preparation of the mother for a healthy
pregnancy is a thorough examination of your health before pregnancy often called
preconception care. This professional examination should include but not limited to
the items as follows:
- Family medical history.
An evaluation of family medical history, in order to
determine whether family members had any medical conditions such as high blood
pressure, diabetes and/or mental retardation. - Genetic tests.
An assessment of any possible genetic disorders due to some
genetic disorders can be inherited, such as sickle cell anemia or Tay-Sachs disease.
Some genetic disorders can be detected by blood tests before pregnancy.
- Evaluation of maternal medical history.
To test of medical conditions that
require special care during pregnancy, such as epilepsy, diabetes, high blood
pressure, anemia and / or allergies. It is also important that your physician is
knowledgeable about previous surgeries or previous pregnancies.
- Evaluation of vaccination.
To assess the maternal immunity to
rubella (German measles), since this disease can cause birth defects or
spontaneous abortion of the baby during pregnancy. If the expectant mom is
not immunized to this disease, the vaccine should be administered at least
three months before conception.- Infection control.
To determine if the expectant mom has infections especially
sexually transmitted infections or urinary tract infections that could be harmful to the
fetus and the mother.
In addition to the above medical evaluations, it is important to pay attention to the
following aspects that may help reduce the risk of complications, and help prepare for
a healthy pregnancy as well as a healthy delivery:
• To quit smoking. If you smoke, quit now.
Studies show that babies born to
mothers who smoke tend to be born prematurely and weigh less at birth. In addition,
women with exposure to second hand smoke are more likely to have babies with
lower birth weight. Smoking also increases the risk of spontaneous abortion,
stillbirth, cleft lip or palate, asthma, premature delivery and sudden infant death
syndrome (SIDS). It is better to quit smoking before getting pregnant, and not to
wait until getting pregnant. • Proper diet.
Eating a balanced diet before and during pregnancy is not only good
for the overall health of the mother, but essential for the nutrition of the fetus. A
balanced diet is always important and you should try to make the right changes in
your diet before getting pregnant. Think about reducing the consumption of empty
calories, artificial sweeteners and caffeine. Balancing your diet with protein-rich
foods, fruits and vegetables, grains and dairy products will improve your health
before becoming pregnant. It is not recommended to lose weight during pregnancy,
but being overweight is not recommended either because it can increase your risk of
complications such as hypertension or diabetes. • Proper weight and exercise.
It is important to exercise regularly and to maintain
a healthy weight before and during pregnancy. Women who are overweight may
experience medical problems like high blood pressure and diabetes. If you are
underweight or overweight, it is best to try to achieve your ideal weight before
getting pregnant. Women who are underweight may have babies with lower birth
weight and lower IQ.
• Preventive Measures.
To prevent birth defects, doctors recommend that you take
400 micrograms or 0.4 gram of folic acid per day, a nutrient found in some green
leafy vegetables, nuts, beans, citrus fruits, fortified cereals and some vitamin
supplements. Folic acid can help reduce the risk of birth defects of the brain and
spinal cord (also called neural tube defects). Consult your doctor about this.
• To avoid alcohol and drugs during pregnancy.
Make sure that you tell your
doctor about all of your medications including prescription and nonprescription. Note
that prescription drugs may have adverse effects on developing fetus. Alcohol also
has harmful effects on developing fetus, even in small quantities. When you take a
drink, alcohol reaches your baby quickly through the blood and the placenta. Women
who drink two or more drinks a day are at greater risk of having a baby with severe
and long-term intellectual disabilities, behavioral problems, learning disabilities and
facial and heart defects. Finally, alcohol may lessen your ability to get pregnant as
well. We do not know how much alcohol is safe for a pregnant you, so it is safer to
not to drinking any. • Exposure to harmful substances.
Pregnant women should avoid exposure to
toxic and chemical substances like lead and pesticides, and radiation like X-rays.
Exposure to high levels of radiation and chemical and toxic substances may adversely
affect developing fetus. • Prevention of infections.
Pregnant women should avoid eating undercooked
meat and raw eggs. In addition, pregnant women should avoid all contact and
exposure to cat feces and cat litter boxes, which can contain a parasite called
toxoplasma gondii that causes toxoplasmosis. Other sources of infection include
insects like flies that have been in contact with cat feces and should be avoided
during pregnancy. Toxoplasmosis can cause serious illness or death of the fetus. A
pregnant woman should reduce the risk of infection by avoiding all potential sources
of infection. A blood test before and during pregnancy can determine if a woman has
been exposed to the parasite Toxoplasma gondii.
The future mother and father should be in optimal health of both psychological
and physical conditions before conception
• To strengthen the body and health.
Start taking a prenatal vitamin daily,
prescribed by your doctor to ensure that your body gets all the nutrients and
vitamins needed to nourish a healthy baby. • To stop Birth Control Pills.
Women who are planning a pregnancy should stop
taking birth control pills before getting pregnant. When you stop taking the pill, you
may have irregular periods for a while and this can make it difficult to know when
you are fertile or ovulating. It might take longer to get pregnant, but the pill has no
impact on fertility. The use of birth control pills before getting pregnant does not
cause birth defects, no matter how close you use them before you get pregnant.
• Prevention of domestic violence.
Women who are abused before pregnancy may
be at risk of increased consumption during pregnancy. Your doctor can help you find
community resources socially and legally to help you to deal with domestic violence
4.2 PREPARATION OF THE FATHER
According to Dr. Bernard Robaire, professor of obstetrics and gynecology at McGill
University, men produce about 100 million sperm per day - about 1,000 sperm per
heartbeat. So, in most cases, improving sperm count and quality has to do with the
supply of nutrients to produce healthy sperm, and to make sure of the lifestyles of
the sperm created. If putting it another way, men do not have to do much to increase
sperm production in general, the focus should be on providing appropriate materials
to produce and to maintain healthy sperm.
if you want to get ready to bring in the conception of the future child your better and
healthier cells, consider the following factors:
1. To improve the factor of fertility
and sperm health, man is recommended to
have a balanced and healthy diet
with a good balance of fruit and vegetables, rich
2. To eat foods and / or whole food supplements that are naturally rich in
folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc.
Folate, selenium and zinc are
particularly important for the production of healthy sperm. Vitamins C and E are
thought to protect against sperm damage by environmental stressors that are
included in the following section.
3. Alcohol factors.
It is unclear whether having one or two glasses a day may
damage sperm, but complete alcohol abstinence is the only way to ensure no adverse
effects on the production and quality of sperm of a man. That said, studies have
shown that sperm count can rise within 90 days of a man who gives up drink,
because sperm needs 75 days to mature to the point where they are able to fertilize
an egg.4. Future Dads should also avoid snuff, anabolic steroids, heavy metals used
in industries, solvents, chemicals and pesticides.
Regular use of snuff including
chewing snuff, and large amounts of alcohol are all strongly linked to low sperm
5. The use of marijuana and recreational drugs can increase the number of
abnormal and low sperm count.
There is some evidence suggesting that heavy
snuff, marijuana, and alcohol can damage the DNA of sperm, which can result in
abnormal fetal development and increased cancer risk for the next generation.
6. Men should be aware that personal lotions and perfums,
because sperm can be especially
vulnerable to environmental factors such as toxic chemicals. 7. To stay away from anabolic steroids, testosterone-based supplements,
All these drugs can reduce fertility by interfering with sperm
production. The anti-androgen drugs most commonly used are those prescribed to
treat enlarged prostate, prostate cancer and male pattern baldness.
8. To reduce stress.
Emotional stress leads to an increased production of cortisol,
which in turn leads to a number of changes in the male reproductive hormones,
resulting in lower quality of sperm. Strive to feel emotionally balanced.
9. To exercise regularly
and maintain a healthy weight, according to the structure,
but do not over exercise. Physical activity is good for reproductive health, but the
exhaustive exercise regularly can alter levels of hormones in a way that reduces
sperm quality. 10. To avoid overheating the testicles.
Avoid hot baths and hot tubs. Spend 30
minutes or more in water that is 102 degrees Fahrenheit (40 degrees Celsius) or
more can significantly reduce sperm count. 11. To avoid tight underwear,
prolonged sitting, use of laptop computers directly in
the first round, and warm working environment, these can all increase scrotal
temperature and reduced sperm count. 12. To avoid cimetidine (tagamet).
Cimetidine is a nonprescription drug that is
used to treat heartburn and ulcers, regular use of cimetidine is strongly linked to low
13. To avoid large amounts of coffee.
To drink several cups of coffee a day can
certainly reduce sperm motility. A cup of coffee a day is unlikely to reduce fertility.
14. To minimize the exposure of toxic chemicals.
In addition to paying
attention to the suggestions given above, it is also important to minimize
the exposure of toxic chemicals that could be linked to reduced fertility
in men and women.
Finally, men should be aware that having too much or too little body fat may disrupt
the production of reproductive male hormones as follows:
- Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) (released by pituitary gland in the hypothalamus), to stimulate the release of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone
- Luteinizing hormone (LH) (stimulated by the anterior pituitary gland), to enhance
specialized cells in the testicles to produce testosterone.
- Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) (stimulated by the anterior pituitary), to enhance
the seminiferous tubules of the testicles to produce sperm.
- Testosterone (produced by specialized cells in the testicles), to stimulate the
production of sperm in the testicles to increase sexual desire.
Since the body fat is closely related to the production of these male reproductive hormones, a man is more likely to produce healthy sperm when in a healthy weight.
4.3 POLLUTION AND SEX - MALES UNDER THREAT
Humans and wildlife are exposed to a greater or lesser extent to chemical
contaminants in the environment. In recent years, we have found that many
chemicals could be related or to be the cause of impaired reproduction, deformities,
transsexuality, diseases, deficiencies in brain function, or other adverse health
effects. Many chemicals, created with properties to alter hormones can negatively
affect male characteristics of men and males of other species.
According to a report of the British charity CHEM Trust entitled "EFFECTS OF
POLLUTANTS ON THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH OF WILDLIFE
Vertebrate - MALES UNDER THREAT"
chemical pollution in air and water can
directly affect male reproductive organs of mammals including humans, birds, fish,
reptiles and amphibians in different ways.
The trend of "demasculinization" is observed in several species of mammals, reptiles,
birds and fish from many places on the earth. The sperm concentration in males of
some animals is so low that endanger reproduction. Scientists fear the extinction of
some species in the near future defeating the natural process of evolution. The
following are some of the problems reported by the CHEM Trust:
- Half of the male fish in British rivers land now have eggs in their reproductive
- Two-thirds of the males of the species deer "white tail" in the state of
Montana-USA have abnormalities in their genitals.
- Male toads in Australia, the males of some toad species are developing female
- The South African male antelopes and Florida male panthers have sperm down
to a level that is not enough for procreation.
- The male gulls and peregrine falcons are secreting female protein required for
the production of egg yolk.
- According with the observations, it seems that the marine mammals are
- Polar bears in the Arctic, belugas in the St. Lawrence Gulf, and orcas in the
West Coast have reduced testosterone levels.
- Wild mink and otters in North America are found with feminized genitals in
several forest reserves.
In Florida of the USA, it has been observed that a population of young alligators
living in Lake Apopka that contaminated in the past with high concentrations of DDT
used as pesticides show a significant reduction in the size of the penis about 24% in
average and have 70% lower testosterone concentrations compared to animals of
similar size in Woodruff lake. Some young alligators from Lake Apopka had
testosterone levels similar to those of female crocodiles, which is three times lower
than the level of a normal male crocodile in Woodruff Lake, located 55 miles away.
However, the effects of "dismaculinizacion" related to chemical contamination are not
limited to the animal world. Several groups of people have been affected by this issue
Recent studies in Arctic communities show unusually small number of children born.
The longstanding relationship in the world is 106 boys for every 100 girls - the
natural way to compensate the higher mortality rates in men.
In the circumpolar region, stretching from Russia to Norway and Canada, Inuit
mothers giving birth are twice as many girls as boys. In some communities in
northern Greenland, absolutely no children were born in the last years.
Perhaps the most widespread of the effects of chemical pollution on human group
that has been affected by pollution is Aamjiwnaang community in Ontario, Canada, in
the industrial corridor of Sarnia. In this area, located in the southern end of Lake
Huron, on the Canadian border with Michigan, USA, is the First Nation’s Aamjiwnaang
community. It is confined to be a small portion of their traditional territory that have
been contaminated by pollutions from oil refineries, polymer plants and plants that
produce enormous agricultural fertilizers, plastics and synthetic compounds. In this
Canadian First Nation community, the number of girls is twice the number of boys.
But this is not the only issue. According with records, an abnormal number of them
are born prematurely or with low birth weight. Scientists believe that chemical waste
released into the atmosphere around Sarnia, are destroying the hormonal balance
between the sexes of community members. Additionally, other studies, carried out in this same region, have found changes in the reproductive capacity of populations
of fish, birds and turtles, and experts believe that it is due to the exposure of animals
to chemicals disrupting endocrine.
In areas where with high levels of chemical contamination, mothers giving birth are twice as many girls as boys.
A wide variety of industrial compounds may be involved in these hormonal
abnormalities, including PCBs. Some believe that birth control pills may also play a
role in this case. DDT, DDE and DICOFOL are three of several dozen artificial
chemicals that can mimic natural hormones, in this case, the female hormone
estrogen. These substances were used widely in agriculture until a few years ago and
are now deposited on the earth, and in the bottom of lakes and rivers.
The exposure of humans to some undesirable chemicals could alter your hormones,
may arise not only from air and water pollution, but also from the food chain and the
use of many daily products, such as computers, automobiles, perfumes, plastics,
building materials, toys, toiletries, plastic bottles, cosmetics, etc. Scientists have
found that sperm count of the average man of today (2013) in North America is half
of what it was 70 years ago. Half of adult males in the U.S. tend to have erectile
dysfunction problems. Birth defects of the testicles and penis undescended are
increasing as well, so the problems are not just affecting older men.
The action of endocrine disruption has been described by experts as follows : “some
synthetic chemicals share common structural features with sex hormones.
These chemicals, or "xenoestrogens," imitate the action of certain hormones
in the body, the hormone binding to activate the receptor”. Endocrine systems
of the body are understood to be responsible for regulation of physiological processes
so that the synthetic chemicals that interfere with these systems is believed to have
profound and far-reaching health. Since hormones travel in the blood in very small
concentrations, even at very low levels of xenoestrogens can disrupt the flow of
internal communications, firing biological responses and functions in the processes of embryonic growth and development. Consequently, it is thought that susceptibility to
xenoestrogens depends largely on sex and the frequency of exposure.
Many chemicals, created with properties to alter hormones can negatively affect male characteristics
of men and males of other species.
In short, the scientific findings have confirmed that chemical pollution can cause and
produce permanent changes in male development of young males, at least in the
crocodiles and other animals.
The growing concern about the effect of pollution on the hormone and endocrine
system of man began between 1998 -2007, and the European Commission invested
161 million euros in the research on endocrine disrupting.
Since 1945, DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) was one of the
chemicals widely used in agriculture as an insecticide and
pesticide in many parts of the world including the United States
and Latin America. After World War II, it was promoted as global
use as a chemical wonder, and a simple solution to all problems
from fleas and malaria to major pests. After tested as negative
impacts on wildlife and humans (male infertility, and cancer),
DDT was banned in 1972 for agriculture in the US and many
However, DDT has been widely used in many regions of the world for many
years; and today, more than 40 years after its ban in America,
many people still continue to suffer from its long-lasting
effects in the food chain. In the US, for example, the USDA has
found breakdown products of DDT in 60% of samples from heavy
cream, 42% from green kale, 28% from carrots and lower
percentages in many other foods. When human populations were
tested, degradation products of DDT were found in the blood of
99% of people surveyed by the US CDC.
● Parents should be properly educated, to have information of the
process of conception, gestation, stimulation and nutrition, before the
natural process of gestation and pregnancy.
● Mother should be in optimal health of both psychological and
physical conditions before getting pregnant.
● A man is more likely to produce healthy sperm when in a healthy
● The use of marijuana and recreational drugs can increase the number
of abnormal and low sperm count. There is evidence that suggests that
heavy snuff, marijuana, and alcohol use can damage the DNA of sperm,
which can result in abnormal fetal development and increase cancer
risk for the next generation
● It is very important to minimize the exposure of toxic chemicals that
could be linked to reduced fertility in men and women
● Scientific findings have confirmed that chemical pollution can cause
permanent changes in male development of young males, at least in
crocodiles and other animals.
● Scientists believe that chemical waste released into the atmosphere
are destroying the hormonal balance between sex groups of the